Do you know who was the first profiler in the FBI?

Howard D. Teten was the first FBI Agent to give a profile for the FBI.

Mr. Teten started out as a veteran police officer from the San Leandro Police Department in California, joined the FBI in 1962. He was appointed as an instructor in applied criminology at the old National Police Academy in Washington, D.C. Teten was greatly interested in the offender profiling, and included some of the ideas in his applied criminology course.

He studied under, and was inspired by, Dr. Paul Kirk, the internationally renowned criminalist. The inspiration for his work also included the work of Dr. Hans Gross and Dr. Brussel. Teten met Dr. Brussel and exchanged investigative ideas and psychological strategies in profiling crimes. Although Teten disagreed with Dr. Brussels’ Freudian interpretations, he accepted other principles of his investigative analysis.

Hogan's Alley sign at the FBI Academy in Quant...

Hogan’s Alley sign at the FBI Academy in Quantico Virginia. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Teten designed a method for analyzing unknown offenders.  His approach included an understanding of forensic science, medicolegal (pertaining to legal aspects of the practice of medicine), death investigations, and psychiatric knowledge, which became the corner stone of Teten’s investigative skills, and shaped his approach to criminal profiling.

He’d looked at the behavioral manifestations at a crime scene for evidence of aberrant mental disorders and other personality traits and then used that information to make deductions.

Teten initiated his criminal profiling program in 1970 for the Bureau. Later that same year, Teten gave his first profile as an FBI agent in Amarillo, Texas.

In 1972, the Federal Bureau of Investigation opened the new FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. It was also the year the FBI’s Behavioral Science Unit (BSU) at Quantico was formed with Teten joining FBI Instructor Patrick J. Mullany‘s team.

Hogan’s Alley sign at the FBI Academy in Quantico Virginia. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Teten and Mullany designed a method for analyzing perpetrators in unsolved cases. Their ideas on offender profiling were tested when a seven-year-old girl was abducted from a Rocky Mountains campsite in Montana. In the early hours of the morning, the offender overpowered the girl sleeping in a tent near her parents. When an intensive search for the missing child failed, the case was referred to the FBI.

Teten, Mullany, and Col. Robert K. Ressler employed their criminal investigative analysis technique to track down the unknown perpetrator. Their profile declared that the abductor was most likely a young, white, male, homicidal Peeping Tom; a sex killer who mutilates his victim after death and sometimes takes body parts as souvenirs.

The profile led to the arrest of David Meirhofer, a local 23-year-old single man who was also a suspect in another murder case. The search of his house unearthed “souvenirs” (body parts taken from both victims). Meirhofer was the first serial killer caught with the aid of the FBI’s new investigative technique, called criminal profiling.

Neither Teten nor Mullany, the formative minds behind early criminal profiling techniques used by the FBI, ever headed the Behavioral Science Unit.

A decade later, the technique became a more sophisticated and systematic profiling tool known as the Criminal Investigative Analysis Program (CIAP).

I have the utmost respect for the law enforcement profession. These professionals see horrible images of what human beings can do to one another. They see mankind at their worst on a daily bases. They work hard to find new ways of protecting families and communities. Imagine what our world would look like if we didn’t have them.

Hey an idea for another book just popped into my mind!

Happy Writing,

Diane Kratz

Resources:

Criminal Profiling, An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis by: Brent Turvey (2005) pg. 16-17.

http://en.wikipedia.org , http://www.thefreedictionary.com , www.fbi.gov/.

Blog Edited by DeAnn Sicard

Did you know The Profiler at the FBI is actually a computer robot ruled based expert system programmed to profile serial crimes? 

TV show Criminal Minds


When researching the FBI for my character Johnny Gaston, (a FBI profiler ) I came across a lot of conflicting information about the FBI’s Behavioral Analysis Unit.  First, the BAU has been called by several names. Second, it isn’t like anything television portrays it as.  Which is one of the reasons I wanted to make this blog, to set things straight.

FBI Academy.

FBI Academy. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The FBI’s NCAVC

NCAVC– (National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crimes) is located at Federal Bureau of Investigation, Training Division FBI Academy at Behavioral Analysis Unit in Quantico, Virginia. NCAVC is the brains of the BAU.

Agents assigned to NCAVC do the following; coördinate investigative and operational support functions, criminological research, and training to give assistance to federal, state, local, and foreign law enforcement agencies investigating unusual or repetitive violent crimes (serial crimes).

The NCAVC also provides investigative support through expertise and consultation in non-violent matters such as national security, corruption, and white-collar crime investigations.

Every one of the FBI’s fifty-six field offices has at least one NCAVC Coordinator in residence. The coordinators are the primary liaison with the field offices and with local and state law enforcement. They’re working with local authorities every day, so they’re in a position to know when there’s something that would benefit from us looking at it. The coordinators are FBI’s front line.

Typical cases for which NCAVC services are requested include- child abduction or mysterious disappearance of children, serial murders, single homicides, serial rapes, extortions, threats, kidnappings, product tampering, arson’s and bombings, weapons of mass destruction, public corruption, and domestic and international terrorism.

Research and training programs support the operational services of the NCAVC. Requests for NCAVC services are typically facilitated through NCAVC coordinators assigned to each FBI field office. Special agents collaborate with BAU on research and training matters, but they’re involved in training, primarily at the National Academy, and are not operationally involved in cases. Yep, sorry to burst your bubble, but contrary to what the Television portrays, these guy’s are analysts and researchers.

The FBI's Behavioral Science Unit
includes Robert Ressler and Ray Hazelwood
Picture courtesy of cja.mansfield.edu

The NCAVC currently consists of four units: 

Behavioral Analysis Unit 1 (counterterrorism/threat assessment)

Behavioral Analysis Unit 2 (crimes against adults)

Behavioral Analysis Unit 3 (crimes against children)

Behavioral Analysis Unit 4 (Violent Criminal Apprehension Program-ViCAP)

Special Agents Training in Behavioral Analysis Units

  • Basic psychology
  • Criminal psychology
  • Forensic science
  • Body recovery
  • Criminal Investigative Analysis
  • Death investigation
  • Threat assessment
  • Statement/document analysis
  • Crimes against children
  • Child abduction and homicide
  • Sexual victimization of children / Internet issues
  • Interview and interrogation procedures
  • Serial murder

The training is a 16-week program.

Names Previously Used by the BAU (Behavioral Analysis Unit)

BSU– (Behavioral Science Unit)-Started in 1974, to investigate serial rape and homicide cases, Serial Crimes Unit -Behavioral Science Investigative Support Unit -Critical Incident Response Group- Investigative Support Unit- Child Abduction/ Serial Killer Unit- Profiling and Behavioral Assessment Unit- Behavioral Analysis Unit East and Behavioral Analysis Unit West- Child Abduction and Serial Murder Investigative Resource Center (CASMIRC).

FBI TERMINOLOGY FOR PROGRAMS INSIDE THE NCAVC

The Profiler– is actually a computer robot rule- based expert system programmed  to profile serial crimes.

 CIAP– (Criminal Investigative Analysis Program) is a computer program designed to investigate serial crime.

VICAP – (Violent Criminal Apprehension Program) a computer program that identifies and links the signature aspects in violent serial crimes. Pierce Brooks was responsible for its creation. Brooks was a detective from Los Angeles came across a case he knew the killer had to have killed before. He spent years researching other cities for similar crimes. He pushed to get a centralized database.

CIRG– (Critical Incident Response Group) – consists of a cadre of special agents and professional support personnel who provide expertise in crisis management, tactical operations, crisis negotiations, hostage rescue, hazardous devices mitigation, critical incident intelligence, and surveillance and aviation. CIRG will deploy investigative specialists to respond to terrorist activities, hostage takings, child abductions, and other high-risk repetitive violent crimes. Other major incidents include prison riots, bombings, air and train crashes, and natural disasters.

LEO– (Law Enforcement Online) – LEO is a secure, Internet-based communications portal for law enforcement, first responders, criminal justice professionals, and anti-terrorism and intelligence agencies around the globe. LEO catalyzes and strengthens collaboration and information sharing by providing access to sensitive but unclassified information and various state-of-the-art communications services and tools. It is available to vetted users anywhere in the world around the clock and is offered free of charge to members.

LEO started in 1995 as a small dial-up service with just 20 members. Now, it has more than 100,000 members across the world and a host of features and capabilities offered through a Virtual Private Network on the Internet.

What does LEO offer specifically? Here’s a rundown:

  • A national alert system directing members to the LEO site for information on emergencies (like the London bombings, for example)
  • Some 1,100 Special Interest Groups (SIG) that allows members who share expertise or interests to connect with each other, including sections on terrorism, street gangs, and bombs.
  • Access to important and useful databases, like those run by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.
  • E-mail services, which enable members to submit fingerprints to the FBI for processing by our Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.
  • A Virtual Command Center (VCC)—an information sharing and crisis management tool that allows the law enforcement community to use LEO at local and remote sites as an electronic command center to submit and view information and intelligence.
  • Distance learning, with several online learning modules on topics like terrorism response, forensic anthropology, and leadership.
  • A multimedia library of publications, documents, studies, research, technical bulletins, and other reports of interest to LEO users.

*I should note that LEO could also mean Law Enforcement Officer to other Law Enforcement Agencies.

IAFIS– (The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System) – is a national automated fingerprint identification and criminal history system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. IAFIS provides automated fingerprint search capabilities, latent searching capability, electronic image storage, and electronic exchange of fingerprints and responses. IAFIS is the largest biometric database in the world, housing the fingerprints and criminal histories of 70 million subjects in the criminal master file, 31 million civil prints and fingerprints from 73,000 known and suspected terrorists processed by the U.S. or by international law enforcement agencies.

NGI – (Next Generation Identification) is a project of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project’s goal is to expand the capabilities of the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, which is currently used by law enforcement to identify subjects by their fingerprints and look up their criminal history. The NGI system will be a more modular system (allowing easy expansibility). It will also have more advanced lookup capabilities, incorporating palm print, iris, and facial identification.

UNSUB – Unknown subject

Signature– Characteristics of idiosyncratic to specific criminals which fulfill a psychological need.

Serial Murder– A person who has killed three or more people.

Resources:

http://www.fbi.govhttp://www.trutv.com/library/crime and

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki.

Writer’s note:

Fiction is called fiction for a reason. It’s a made up world created by a writer. Writers give their story credibility through research. Readers expect us to know what we are writing about. On the same token, if reader’s think of a FBI profiler as they’ve seen on Criminal Minds or other TV shows, and buy a book expecting this same type of character, then they will be disappointed if the writer went strictly by research, and not buy another book by that author. I believe a successful writer will write a character with the reader in mind. My character is a FBI profiler, even if in reality the job title doesn’t exist in the FBI.

Happy writing!

Diane Kratz


A Look Inside the Behavioral Analysis Unit

The History of Criminal Profiling

“Fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities…truth isn’t.”  Mark Twain. 

Did you know…The FBI doesn’t actually have employees with the job title FBI profiler?

However, special agents at the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC)  is located at Federal Bureau of Investigation, Training Division, FBI Academy, Behavioral Science Unit- Quantico, Virginia,  do construct profiles of unknown offenders. It is a job of investigation and research—a job of inductive and deductive reasoning; crime-solving experience; and knowledge of criminal behavior, facts, and statistical probabilities.

Men like Cesare Lombroso (criminologist), Dr. Hans Gross (founding father of modern criminal profiling), Dr. George B. Phillips (forensic pathologist), Dr. James A. Brussel (psychiatrist), Howard Teten (FBI agent who taught Applied Criminology courses and gave the FBI’s first profile on a case), Jack Kirsch (started the BSU), John Douglas and Bob Ressler (interviewed serial killers for analysis). These were the men who gave us what we now know as modern-day criminal profiling.

Criminal Profiling had been called many names such as, behavioral profiling, crime scene profiling, criminal personality profiling, psychological profiling and more recently criminal investigation analysis.

The truth is Criminal Profiling is multidisciplinary practice. Its history comes from the study of criminal behavior (criminology), the study of mental illness (psychology and psychiatry), and the examination of psychical evidence (forensic science).

The first publication on criminal profiling was, The Malleus Maleficarum (The Witches’ Hammer).  This was published in 1486 as a professional manual for witch hunters.  It was used as a guide for Spanish Inquisition, to assist in the identification, prosecution and punishment for witches.

Men in the  History of Criminal Profiling

CESARE LOMBROSO   

Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), Italian criminologist

Image via Wikipedia

Cesare Lombroso an Italian physician is generally thought of as the first criminologists. He studied 383 Italian prisoners and compared information on race, age, sex, physical characteristics, education and geographic region. Lombroso reasoned that criminal behaviors could be understood and predicated.  In 1876 he published a book called; The Criminal Man and suggested there were three types of criminals:

Born criminals-degenerates, primitive offenders who were lower evolutionary reversions in terms of physical characteristics. 

Insane criminals-who suffered from mental and/or physical illness and deficiencies. 

Criminaloids- The larger general class of offenders without specific characteristics. They were not afflicted by a recognizable mental disorder, but their mental and emotional make-up predisposed them to criminal behavior. Lombroso theory of criminal anthropology had 18 point characteristics indicative of a born criminal.

These 18 points all associate with the biology of a man’s face and body types. Lombroso felt, based on his research, he could recognize the psychical features that he had correlated with criminality. And thus criminology was born. (Turvey, 2005).

About this site:

This site contains information about violent crimes. The contents include murder,  and crimes of a sexual nature. It is not intended for anyone under the age of 18.

Disclaimer: I am a crime fiction writer, not a profiler. However, I do have a background in mental health and a master degree in social work. I’m also licensed with the Behavioral Sciences Regulatory Board in Kansas.

I have researched these topics over two years, to be included in my series of novels. This site was created for entertainment and promotional purposes only. It is all the information I’ve gathered throughout my two years of research.

I wanted to have everything in one spot so other writers can use the information for their books. The information is available to anyone everywhere who ventures to look. Each post includes information on where the information came from.

information hydrant

information hydrant (Photo credit: Will Lion)

This blogging stuff is new for me. I will eventually add monthly profiles and snippets of my book, but I felt I needed to post the history of profiling, those who contributed to the field, and how it has evolved. It also great information for anyone who writes historical novels.

A lot of people don’t understand certain mental health terms as well. I can’t tell you how many times I’ve been asked what the difference between a sociopath and psychopath is. These terms are used loosely and most people don’t know that they mean the same thing in the USA. But if you travel to the United Kingdom, they are viewed quite differently.

And when we are talking about the FBI-well, they are tight-lipped and give conflicting information. I’ve weeded through hours of information trying to figure out what the BAU really did, and hope to talk about this here on my blog.

I know when I first wanted to write about a profiler, I didn’t know exactly what a profile was, except what I saw on TV. A lot of people think its like mind reading or fortune-telling. The simple truth of it is, it’s not. Profiling is looking at the behavioral “tells” of the crime scene, the victims, the forensic evidence, and making deductions from them.

I have always been fascinated with the criminal mind and I hope to connect with others who have the same interests. I hope you find this blog interesting and can use it as a resource.

Happy Writing,

Diane Kratz

About this site